Icaru, I guess you are referring to this article by Raymundo: Spanish Creditors Pursuing Debts Abroad.
Although Spanish lender can in theory pursue bad debts across EU borders I have yet to hear of a case of it happening. I guess it depends how big the debt is. Another option is for the lender to sell the loan to a debt-collection agency in the home country, but I haven’t heard of that happening either.
Debt collection outside the EU is even more complicated and costly. In the majority of cases I would expect the lender to write off the debt, rather than try and pursue a claim in the places you mention like Turkey or Morocco (but perhaps no the USA). The costs will often outweigh the likely payoff.