I believe that the best protection from fraudsters is our own common sense and personal responsibility. However that seems to evaporate when the promise of high returns are offered.
I watched a congressional hearing on the Madoff scandal. Some investors could see that Madoff’s claims were unreal but many, many more could not because their eyes were glazed with greed. People who should have known better.
If any investment offers greater reward than say an average high street bank be aware you are taking a proportionate risk. Nobody can buck the market trend for very long.
Off plan properties always came with that same proportional risk.
The fraudster knows which buttons to press in the art of persuasion called selling. They know how to target the vulnerable because they deliberately seek them out.
The best defence against them is the personal acceptance of relative low financial returns on investment.